Large-scale genomic study reveals robust activation of the immune system following advanced Inner Engineering meditation retreat

 View ORCID ProfileVijayendran Chandran,  View ORCID ProfileMei-Ling Bermúdez,  View ORCID ProfileMert Koka, Brindha Chandran, Dhanashri Pawale,  View ORCID ProfileRamana Vishnubhotla, Suresh Alankar,  View ORCID ProfileRaj Maturi, Balachundhar Subramaniam, and Senthilkumar Sadhasivam

 See all authors and affiliationsPNAS December 21, 2021 118 (51) e2110455118;

  1. Edited by Michael Posner, Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR; received June 15, 2021; accepted November 5, 2021


Several studies on the impact of yoga and meditation on mental and physical health have demonstrated beneficial effects. However, the potential molecular mechanisms and critical genes involved in this beneficial outcome have yet to be comprehensively elucidated. This study identified and characterized the transcriptional program associated with advanced meditation practice, and we bioinformatically integrated various networks to identify meditation-specific core network. This core network links several immune signaling pathways, and we showed that this core transcriptional profile is dysfunctional in multiple sclerosis and severe COVID-19 infection. Very importantly, we demonstrated that the meditative practice enhanced immune function without activating inflammatory signals. Together, these results make meditation an effective behavioral intervention for treating various conditions associated with a weakened immune system.


The positive impact of meditation on human well-being is well documented, yet its molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. We applied a comprehensive systems biology approach starting with whole-blood gene expression profiling combined with multilevel bioinformatic analyses to characterize the coexpression, transcriptional, and protein–protein interaction networks to identify a meditation-specific core network after an advanced 8-d Inner Engineering retreat program. We found the response to oxidative stress, detoxification, and cell cycle regulation pathways were down-regulated after meditation. Strikingly, 220 genes directly associated with immune response, including 68 genes related to interferon signaling, were up-regulated, with no significant expression changes in the inflammatory genes. This robust meditation-specific immune response network is significantly dysregulated in multiple sclerosis and severe COVID-19 patients. The work provides a foundation for understanding the effect of meditation and suggests that meditation as a behavioral intervention can voluntarily and nonpharmacologically improve the immune response for treating various conditions associated with excessive or persistent inflammation with a dampened immune system profile.

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